This study analyses Sri Lanka’s opportunities and challenges in agri-food trade amid COVID-19. Among the many impending crises that are gradually unfolding, the challenge of rising food insecurity resulting from the COVID-19 and the measures to contain it can be considered as one of the most critical. Therefore, Sri Lanka, as a middle-income country, should immediately identify the emerging trade patterns, opportunities, and challenges to face the upcoming trade competitiveness due to COVID-19. The paper presents an overview of Sri Lanka’s agricultural trade flows in the world. It describes Sri Lanka’s main import and export partners of the country, market characteristics, shifting of main export destinations, the export potential of Sri Lanka’s agricultural products to other countries. It analyses the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Sri Lanka’s import and export sectors, and the barriers to the trade of agricultural products in Sri Lanka. Results indicate that in addition to the main export agriculture commodities such as tea, there might be other emerging agri-food products with a high potential to grow. Identifying such products and potential export markets would be important for the expansion of international trade in new arenas.