Following the ending of the secessionist conflict in 2009, the growth prospects for the country in the medium term look promising. However, sustaining growth and ensuring peace will largely depend on reducing disparities and improving opportunities for participation in development. Understanding the main elements of disparities across various population groups is an important first step in designing polices that mitigate recurrence of violence in a post-conflict setting. Human development framework provides a good basis for examining the social, political and economic inequalities across population groups in a country. The second Human Development Report for Sri Lanka will assist the planning of government progammes by highlighting the existing “development disparities” in the country and the possible causes of these disparities.